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Wednesday, June 30, 2010

1 Sperm problems

post by ableh


DEFINITIONS

To be fertile, a man must be able to issue normal sperm in sufficient quantity to the woman's vagina, and sperm must be able to fertilize an egg. Conditions contrary to this process can make a man less fertile.

CAUSE

Conditions that increase the temperature of the testes (where sperm is produced) can reduce sperm counts in large amounts and strong sperm movement can increase the number of abnormal sperm. Temperatures may rise by dealing with the excessive heat, interference, which produces fever, long term, the testis does not descend (a rare disorder present at birth, and varicose veins in the testes (varicocele).

Certain hormones or genetic disorders can hinder sperm production. Hormonal disorders, including hyperprolactinemia, hypothyroidusm, hypogonadism, and adrenal gland disorders (which produce the hormone testosterone and other hormones) or pituitary gland (which controls production of testosterone). Genetic disorders include abnormalities in sex chromosomes, which occurs in Klinefelter syndrome.

Other causes of reduced sperm production, including thyroid diseases that affect the testes (mumps orchitis), injury of the testis, associated with industrial or environmental toxins, and drugs. Drugs including androgens (like testosterone), aspirin when used for long periods, chlorambucil, cimetidine, colchicines, corticosteroids (like prednisone), cotrimoxazole, cyclophosphamide, drugs used to treat malaria, estrogen is used to treat prostate cancer, marijuana , medroxyprogesteron, methotrexate, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs-one type of antidepressant), nicotine, nitrofurantoin, opoid (narcotics), spironolactone, and sulfasalazine. Anabolic steroid use can affect hormone levels and thereby also hamper sperm production. Excessive alcohol consumption can reduce sperm production.

Some disruption resulted in a complete vacuum of sperm in the semen (azoospermia). Including a serious disruption in the testis and the blockage or loss of Vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles loss, and blockage in the second sac ejaculator.

Sometimes, the cement, which contains sperm, moving in the wrong order (to the penis in the bag instead of down). These disturbances, called retrograde ejaculation, is more common in men who have diabetes or who have pelvic surgery, such as the removal of the prostate. Infertility can occur.

DIAGNOSIS

The doctor asked the men about their health history and do physical research to try to identify the cause. The doctor checked the physical abnormalities, such as the testes are not descended, and signs of hormonal or genetic disorders that can cause infertility. Hormone levels (including testosterone) might be measured in the blood.

Often, semen checked, primary screening procedure for male infertility, is required. For this procedure, the man asked not to ejaculate for two to three days before analysis. Then he asked to ejaculation, usually by masturbation, into a glass container nodes, is recommended in the laboratory. For men who experience difficulty producing semen samples in this manner, a special condom that does not have a lubricant or chemical toxins to sperm could be used to collect semen during intercourse. The analysis is based on two or three instances, derived at least two weeks apart, it makes more sense than the analysis based on single samples.

Volume on the cement samples were measured. What color and viscosity of cement is normally ascertained. Sperm are examined under a microscope to determine if they are not normal in shape, size, movement, or amount.

If the semen sample is abnormal, the analysis of the possibility of repeated because the sample from the same guy who normally is very varied. If the cement is still seen as being normal, the doctor tried to identify the cause. Even so, the number of sperm that could indicate just a little too little time has passed since the ejaculation or only a few cement stored in the shelter. Furthermore, the number of sperm that a little does not mean that fertility is reduced, and normal sperm count does not guarantee fertility.

Tests on the function and quality of sperm can be done. One test detects antibodies to the sperm. Others determine whether the sperm membrane remained intact. Still others can ensure the ability of sperm to obtain more detailed information regarding the production of sperm and testicular function.

TREATMENT

Clomiphene, a drug used to trigger (induce) ovulation in women, may be used to attempt to increase the number of sperm in men. However, clomiphene does not improve the ability of sperm to move or reduce the number of abnormal sperm, and not proven to improve fertility.

For men who have a number of normal sperm, artificial insemination can slightly increase the chance of their partner to get pregnant. This technique uses the first part of the cement diejakulasi, sperm is highly condensed. Techniques which select only active sperm (sperm washing) is slightly more successful. In vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm often injected (injecting a single sperm into a single egg cell), and ganete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) is more complex and expensive procedure. They managed to treat various types of male infertility.

For men who do not produce sperm, injected the woman with sperm from another man (a donor) might be considered. Because the danger of contagious venereal diseases, including HIV infection, fresh semen samples from donors should not be used. Instead, the frozen sperm samples obtained from a certified sperm bank, which has been testing donors for sexually transmitted diseases.

Varicocele can be treated by surgery. Sometimes the increase in fertility as a result.

Male couples who have fertility problems likely were treated with human gonadotropins, to stimulate eggs to mature and be released.

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