Monday, May 10, 2010

0 Tetanus


Tetanus (lockjaw) is a disease caused by toxins produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria.
Also called lockjaw because the seizures occurred in the jaw muscles.
Tetanus is usually found in developing countries.

An-aerobic bacteria Clostridium tetani.

Spores of Clostridium tetani can live for years in soil and animal feces.
If tetanus bacteria enter the human body, infections can occur both in deep wounds and superficial injuries.
After the birth process can lead to infection in the mother's womb and the umbilical newborn (tetanus neonatorum).That causes the symptoms of infection are poisons produced by bacteria, not bacteria.

The symptoms usually appear within 5-10 days after infection, but can also occur within two days or 50 days after infection.

The most common symptom is stiffness of the jaw.
Other symptoms such as anxiety, impaired swallowing, headache, fever, sore throat, chills, muscle spasms, stiff neck, arm and leg.

Patients may experience difficulty in opening the jaw (trismus).
Spasms in the muscles causes facial expressions like a grimace patients with raised eyebrows.

Stiffness or muscle spasm abdomen, neck and back pain can cause patients with head and heels pulled back while the body arched forward.
Sphincter muscle spasms in the lower abdomen can cause constipation and urine retention.

Minor nuisances such as noise, wind or turbulence flow, can trigger muscle spasms which are accompanied by pain and excessive perspiration.
During the entire body spasms occurred, the patient can not speak because his chest muscle stiffness or spasms occur throat. It also causes respiratory problems resulting in lack of oxygen.

Usually no fever.
Pernafaan rate and heart rate and reflexes are usually increased.

Tetanus can also be limited to a group of muscles around the wound. Seizures in the vicinity of this injury can persist for several weeks.

A case of suspected tetanus muscle stiffness or spasm in someone who has a wound.

To confirm the diagnosis can be made from the smear wound bacteria.
Contribute a better translation.

To neutralize the poison, was given tetanus immunoglobulin.
Tetrasiklintetrasiklin and penicillin antibiotics given to prevent further formation of toxins.

Other drugs may be given to calm patients, controlling spasms and loosen the muscles.

Patients are usually hospitalized and placed in a quiet room.
For moderate to severe infections, may need a ventilator to assist breathing.
Food is given through an IV or nasogastric tube.
To remove dirt, placed catheters.
The patient should lie alternately tilted to the left or right and was forced to cough to prevent pneumonia.

To reduce the pain given codeine.
Other drugs may be given to control blood pressure and heart rate.

After recovering, should be given a full vaccination for tetanus infection does not provide immunity against subsequent infection


Tetanus has a mortality rate of up to 50%.
Biaanya deaths occurred in patients with a very young, very old and injecting drug users.

If symptoms worsen quickly, or if treatment is delayed, the worse the prognosis.

Prevent tetanus through vaccination is far better than cure.
In children, tetanus vaccine given as part of the DPT vaccine (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus).
Adults should receive a booster

- As someone who has a wound, if: They have received tetanus booster within the last five years, do not need to undergo further vaccination
- Never had received a booster within the last five years, the vaccination is given immediately
- Never had undergone vaccination or incomplete vaccination, given an injection of tetanus vaccine and immunoglobulin injections first of three monthly vaccinations.

Each wound (especially a deep puncture wound) should be cleaned thoroughly because of dirt and dead tissue will facilitate the growth of the bacteria Clostridium tetani.


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