Sunday, May 16, 2010

0 Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

post by ableh

(High Blood Pressure) is an increase in blood pressure
in an artery. In general, hypertension is a condition without symptoms,
in which abnormally high pressure in an artery caused increasing
risk for stroke, aneurysm, heart failure, heart attack, and
kidney damage.

On examination the blood pressure will get two numbers. Higher rates
obtained when the heart contracts (systolic), l
ower number
obtained when the heart relaxes (diastolic). Written in blood pressure
as a systolic pressure diastolic pressure slash, eg 120/80 mmHg,
read a hundred and twenty over eighty. It said high blood pressure if
when sitting systolic blood pressure reached 140 mmHg or more, or pressure
reached 90 mm Hg diastolic or greater, or both.

In high blood pressure, systolic pressure increase usually occurs and
diastolic. In isolated systolic hypertension, systolic blood pressure reaches 140
mmHg or more, but less and diastolic blood pressure 90 mmHg and pressure
diastolic still within normal range. Hypertension is often found at the age of
information. Along with increasing age, almost everyone experienced an increase
blood pressure, systolic pressure continued to increase until the age of 80 years and the pressure
diastolic pressures continue to increase until age 55-60 years, then reducing

Malignant hypertension is a very severe hypertension, which if not treated,
will cause death within 3-6 months. Hypertension is rare,
only one and every 200 patients with hypertension. Blood pressure in life
person varies naturally. Infants and children normally
Blood pressure is much lower than the adult. Blood pressure also
influenced by physical activity, which will be higher at the time of
activity and lower when resting. Blood pressure in one day
also different; highest in the morning and lowest during sleep

Increased blood pressure in the arteries can in several ways:

1. Stronger heart pumps so that more fluids flowing in
every second.
2. Large Arteni lose elasticity (stiffness), and can not expand on
when the heart pumps blood through these arteni. As a result of blood forced
through narrow vessels and cause increased pressure tenjadi Here's what
at an advanced age, where the wall has been thickened and stiff arteninya because
arteriosclerosis. In the same way, blood pressure was also increased at the time
vasoconstriction occurred, namely the small arteries (arterioles) contract for temporary
because stimulation of nerves or hormones in the blood.
3. Increased fluid in the circulation can cause increased pressure
blood. Mi things happen if there is kidney dysfunction who can not afford
dispose of salt and water and the body. Increased blood volume in the body,
Blood pressure also increases.

Conversely, if the heart pumping activity is reduced, widening anteri experience,
plenty of fluids out and the circulation, the blood pressure decreases. Adaptation
of these factors carried out by the change in the function
kidney and autonomic nervous system (parts and the nervous system that regulates various
automatic body functions).

1. Changes in Kidney Function
Renal control of blood pressure in several ways:
- If blood pressure rises, the kidneys will increase the expenditure of salt and water,
which will lead to reduced blood volume and restore blood pressure
to normal.
- If blood pressure decreases, the kidneys will reduce the disposal of salt and water,
thus increasing blood volume and blood pressure returned to normal.
- The kidneys can also increase blood pressure by producing an enzyme
called renin, which triggers the formation of hormones angiotensi, will further
triggering the release of the hormone aldosterone.

Kidney is an important organ in controlling blood pressure and therefore
various diseases and disorders of the kidney can cause high blood pressure.
For example narrowing of arteries that leads to one kidney (artery stenosis
renal) can cause hypertension. Inflammation and injury to one or
both kidneys can also cause increased blood pressure.

2. Sympathetic Nervous System

And part of the autonomic nervous system, which will temporarily:
- Increased blood pressure responses during the fight-or-flight (the physical reaction of the body
and external threats)
- Increase the speed and power of heart rate, also narrowed portion
large arterioles, but widen arterioles in certain areas (eg muscle
framework, which requires more blood supply)
- Reduce the disposal of water and salt by the kidneys, thereby increasing the volume
blood in the body
- Release the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (NORAD renalin) which
stimulate the heart and blood vessels.

At about 90% of hypertensive patients, the cause is unknown and the circumstances
This is known as essential hypertension or primary hypertension. Hypertension
Essential likely to have many causes, some of the changes in heart
and blood vessels together with the possibility of causing increased pressure
blood. If the cause is unknown, it is called secondary hypertension. Approximately
50-10% of hypertensive patients, the cause is kidney disease. Who's who
cause hormonal abnormalities, or the use of certain medications (eg oral contraceptives)
approximately 1-2%. Another rare cause of hypertension is Phaeochromocytoma, namely
Tumors of the adrenal gland that produces hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) or
norepinephrine (noradrenaline).

Overweight (obesity), an inactive lifestyle (exercise lazy), stress,
alcohol or salt in food can trigger the occurrence of hypertension in
people who have inherited susceptibility. Stress likely causes
blood pressure rise for a while, if the stress has passed, then
blood pressure usually returns to normal. Some causes of
secondary hypertension:

1. Penyaki Kidney: renal artery stenosis, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis,
renal tumors, kidney disease polikista (usually derived), trauma
Renal (kidney injury related), and radiation therapy are related to the kidney.

2. Hormonal disorders: hyperaldosteronism, Cushing syndrome and Phaeochromocytoma
3. Drugs: oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, cyclosporine, erythropoietin, cocaine,
alcohol abuse, and cinnamon (in a very large amount).
4. Other Causes: koartasio aorta, preeclampsia in pregnancy, porfiria
acute intermittent and acute lead poisoning.

In most patients, hypertension does not cause symptoms, although
accidentally several symptoms occur together and trust related
with high blood pressure (when in fact it is not). Symptoms are
are headache, bleeding, and nose, dizziness, flushed face, and
fatigue, which could happen to someone with high blood pressure
normal. If hypertension is severe or chronic and untreated, can arise
the symptoms of headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, breathlessness, anxiety, views
become blurred because of the damage to the brain, eyes, heart, and kidney.
Sometimes patients with severe hypertension has decreased consciousness and even coma
due to brain swelling. State of encephalopathy inii called hipertensif,
which require immediate treatment.


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